Apprendre à mieux communiquer ( La rhétorique ou l’art de persuader )

Apprendre à mieux communiquer ( La rhétorique ou l’art de persuader )

La rhétorique est l’art d’utiliser les subtilités du langage pour exprimer ses idées, dans le but de convaincre et de persuader ses interlocuteurs. La pratique de cette discipline permet d’analyser le contenu d’un message, de déjouer les arguments des autres, de formuler des hypothèses solides, d’amener les autres à adhérer à son point de vue ou son opinion. Elle prend le relais lorsque la logique ne suffit pas.

Chacun, au fur et à mesure qu’il développe sa perception du monde, forge sa propre rhétorique. Mais, si personnelle soit-elle dans son expression, la rhétorique s’appuie sur des règles et des méthodes qui s’affirment depuis qu’Aristote les a établies !

Nous disposons de quatre moyens pour amener quelqu’un à penser ou à faire quelque chose :

  • l’exercice du pouvoir : Plus précisément, l’autorité, le chantage, la violence, la force, etc. Ce moyen est souvent le plus efficace pour convaincre mais certainement pas pour persuader.
  • la séduction : Souvent utilisée en publicité par exemple.
  • l’argumentation : Il s’agit du moyen le plus efficace pour persuader l’autre.
  • la manipulation : Elle permet de modifier le comportement de l’autre mais pas nécessairement sa pensée. C’est le cas de la propagande et de la désinformation.

Pour construire une argumentation solide et efficace :

  • préparez votre auditoire

Assurez-vous de connaître le type d’auditoire auquel vous vous adressez et gagnez sa confiance en alignant votre discours sur des valeurs qu’il connaît. De plus, rendez-vous sympathique en référant à votre expérience personnelle.

  • préparez et structurez votre argumentaire

Déterminez vos objectifs et présentez-les dans un ordre progressif. Précisez les angles selon lesquels vous traiterez le sujet (toujours en tenant compte de votre auditoire). Développez plusieurs types d’arguments qui font appel à la logique ou aux émotions, utilisez des exemples ou des témoignages, appuyez vos arguments par des citations ou des métaphores.

  • faites de l’effet

Qu’il s’agisse de marteler une phrase importante à plusieurs moments dans votre discours ou d’utiliser l’humour, les effets sont nécessaires pour garder l’attention de votre auditoire. Plus encore, ils peuvent renforcer vos arguments et influencer. Autre part, n’oubliez pas de ménager des pauses. Cela donnera de la consistance à votre discours.

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